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Collection Survey: Ko Nakajima


Project 2: February 2018

Ko nakajima collection survey


Items catalogued: 367

Below is an excerpt of report for the Ko Nakajima Collection Survey, which was conducted in Tokyo on February 8th and 9th, 2018. The survey was led by Peter Oleksik, who wrote the final report. For the full report, please contact CCJ, with reason for your request. 

English Report
About Ko Nakajima & His Works



TerumoFoundation_logo_F copy.jpg


This Collection Survey was supported by Terumo Foundation for Arts and Life Sciences.



related Contents:

Ko Nakajima Artist Profile and Work Descriptions




Ko Nakajima’s AudioVisual Collection Conducted February 8th and 9th, 2018 Tokyo, Japan

Report by Peter Oleksik

Section 1: Overview
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Methodology
Section 2: Collection Analysis (omitted)
2.2 Macro Collection Condition
2.3 Formats
2.4 Format Detail
Section 3: Work Level Assessment (omitted)
3. Artwork listing  
Section 4: Risks
4.1 Environmental Conditions
4.2 Obsolescence
4.3 Deterioration
4.4 Other Issues
Section 5: Recommendations
5. 1 Environmental
5.2 Care and Handling
5.3 Migration
5.4 File Formats
5.5 File Storage
5.6 Intellectual Control and Metadata
5.7 Documentation

Section 1: Overview

1.1 Introduction

The Ko Nakajima collection survey was conducted February 7th and 8th, 2018 in Tokyo, Japan. The material was packaged into 13 discrete boxes and transported to 2 separate locations for the survey. Transportation to both sites was a coordination of cabs and on-foot delivery.

1.2 methodology

The Nakajima material was pre-selected by the artist from his main artist studio and packaged into boxes for transport to the survey sites. According to the artist, the material was selected based on its format and relation to his main body of work. Tapes were roughly sorted and packaged by their relation to different works by the artist, but this was only a rough organization.

The limitation of time is what heavily influenced the survey methodology. In conversation with the artist and personnel present, it was decided to split up into sections to be able to apply appropriate skills to accurate information capture. By splitting up, it allowed the team to cover and catalogue a larger swath of the collection. The following sections were:

UUID and Photography
This is where the Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) was assigned to the tape and a foil-backed label was applied to both the housing and the tape itself. These labels were both printed and handwritten. The object was then photographed using iphones capturing images of both the housing and carrier.

Label information/Descriptive Metadata Capture
Label information and Descriptive Metadata was captured in Japanese and populated into the fields “Description”, “Title”, “Housing Annotations” and “Notes”. This station was manned with native Japanese speakers. 

Technical and Condition Metadata Capture
This station is where the technical and condition metadata capture was performed. Fields populated were all contained in the “physical condition” section. 

Artist Interview/Descriptive Metadata Capture
This station is where a scholar interviewed the artist about each individual tape to ascertain what the individual item was, its relation to a work or works, and any further background information on the tape. 

section 4: risks

4.1 environmental conditions

The tape material is currently being stored in a studio space actively used by the artists that is a converted apartment in a residential neighborhood. The conditions are not climate controlled and the space itself is not well organized and is fairly dirty. Left in this environment, the tape material will further degrade and material will soon become irretrievable. In particular, the film material is rapidly decaying and nearing a crisis moment in terms of accessibility.

4.2 obsolescence

All of the material in the collection is currently technologically obsolete as no analog videotape stock nor VTRs are being manufactured. While video is susceptible to physical and chemical degradation issues, the far more pressing issue is the fact that all analog video formats are technological obsolete. Many experts in the archival community predict that playback will become increasingly difficult and potentially impossible in the next 10-15 years[1]. This impending crisis makes this material the most at risk in any collection from a preservation standpoint. The fragility of each analog video format can roughly be plotted in a timeline with the most endangered formats being the ones introduced the earliest. All audio/visual material in Nakajima’s collection is considered obsolete and is in need of immediate migration.

[1] Wright, Richard. “Going, Going, Gone: prospects for analogue audiovisual content”. PrestoCentre Blog. June 15, 2013.

4.3 deterioration

Due to environmental and storage conditions, the film and video material are increasingly deteriorating. Each faces their own format specific issues but each is in danger of becoming inaccessible in the near future. 

Vinegar Syndrome: 
When cellulose acetate film is exposed to heat and moisture from the environment, a chemical breakdown happens within the acetate that releases acetic acid. This is commonly known as “vinegar syndrome” because acetic acid is the key ingredient in vinegar and the pungent smell is one of the clearest indicators of its presence. When this process begins, the film begins to shrink, fade and generally break down. If not treated by moving to a more stable environment (either controlled or by freezing the film), the film will be destroyed.

Binder Hydrolysis: 
Binder Hydrolysis, or Sticky Shed Syndrome, is a process inherent to magnetic tape where moisture seeps into the binder layer separating the magnetic media from the substrate. This process is commonly known as “sticky shed syndrome” as it allows the magnetic media to be separated from the tape through friction from playback and making the signal irrecoverable . This can be diagnosed by assessing magnetic tape exhibiting a smell akin to crayons or dirty socks.

4.4 format issues

Analog Film: Environmental and chemical degradation issues are the highest concern for analog film in any media collection. The devastation that Vinegar Syndrome can wreck on a collection of acetate film is total and should be mitigated against immediately. While analog film is technically obsolete, manufacturers are still making motion picture stock and the ability for playback is still present. Additionally, as a preservation format when stored properly, analog film is a great candidate for long-term care and preservation.

MiniDV: MiniDV, a format introduced in 1995, was one of the earliest widely adopted digital video formats. The tape is composed of a ¼” width polyester base and many stocks have the magnetic particles adhered through a process known as metal evaporate (ME). Due to its small and delicate composition, the tape material is prone to damage through stretching or physical deformation via playback or poor handling. MiniDV faces the same technological obsolescence issues as typical analog video where playback devices are no longer manufactured and becoming increasingly difficult to find. Migration of DV was commonly achieved via Firewire transfer via capture software engineered to migrate the DV data stream as it was recorded on tape[1]. As the Firewire connection type has been replaced by more current connection types, as well as video capture software removing support for DV capture, native playback and migration is becoming increasingly difficult[2].

1/2” Open-Reel: ½” Open-Reel is the earliest portable video format that was released on the market so it is one of the most at risk formats in terms of technological obsolescence[3]. Playback decks have not been manufactured in over 20 years and are becoming increasingly rare. Similarly, knowledgeable engineers skilled in transferring this early analog material are dwindling, particular engineers adept at working with non-standard, artist made material, which requires a different sensitivity to the migration over more standardized video formats.

U-matic: The U-matic format, introduced in 1971 and ceasing production in the late 1990s is another video format facing rapid technological obsolescence of playback devices due to its age and ubiquity of use. U-matic is particularly prone to binder hydrolysis, or “sticky-shed” syndrome, as it’s cases facilitated a micro-climate to allow high humidity to permeate the binder.

[1] Rice, David and Elnabli, Stefan. “Barcode Scanners, MiniDV Decks, and the Migration of Digital Information from Analog Surfaces.” AudioVisual Preservation Solutions. October 2010.

[2] Preservation Self-Assessment Program. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. <>

[3] Preservation Self-Assessment Program. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. <>

4.5 other issues

Intellectual Control: This survey was a critical first step in gaining an understanding of the artist’s collection but the lack of intellectual control of the material is also a large risk for the collection. Not knowing what you have, where it is and its condition makes any collection essentially unpreservable. The work from this survey was a positive first attempt at organizing all of the material into a database, assigning UUIDs to track material on an item level basis and to begin to gather descriptive, structural and technical metadata about the material. However, this initial work must be tended to and updated as more work occurs on the collection with inevitable moves, migration and other preservation actions.

section 5: recommendations

5.1 environmental

All of the material should be moved to a temperature and climate controlled facility and stored properly. As it currently stands, the material will only further degrade and potentially be lost. The space in which the material is stored is actively contributing to its deterioration and, in some cases, accelerating it. Video material should be stored at a temperature of approximately 50 – 60 degrees Fahrenheit with a relative humidity (RH) of 30%[1]. Film material should be stored at approximately 40 degrees Fahrenheit with an RH of 30%[2]. All video material should be stored upright, with its spine facing out, on metal or similar composition shelving. All film material should be stored in vented polyprolene cans flat.

[1] Adelstein, Peter Z. IPI Media Storage Quick Reference. 2nd Edition. Image Permanence Institute. P. 7 , <>

[2] Adelstein, Peter Z. IPI Media Storage Quick Reference. 2nd Edition. Image Permanence Institute. P. 4

5.2 care and handling

The film material should be inspected and re-housed first as it is the most critically endangered due to the onset of vinegar syndrome[1]. All of the material should be properly inspected and wound onto a new inert plastic cores[2]. The material should then be re-housed into vented, inert plastic polypropylene cans[3].

The material all has various states of dust or particulate covering it as a result of years spent in a dusty storage environment. All material should be first cleaned and re-housed, if possible, into new containers. This will be impossible for some formats where new housings are not actively manufactured (most of the video material). In the case where new housings cannot be acquired, the material should be cleaned with air and soft-bristle brushes. The housings should be cleaned using a non-abrasive cloth and small amount of isopropyl alcohol to remove any dust or fine particulate that further impact the tape material.

[1] Bigourdan, Jean-Louis. “Vinegar Syndrome: An Action Plan” Image Permanence Insitute. Rochester Institute of Technology. <>

[2] Example of cores:

[3] Example of vented can:

5.3 triage

The collection should be prioritized in terms of what to treat first. This prioritization can include a number of factors to determine the order of preservation and action. Once the entire collection is stabilized in terms of storage, there are 2 clear categories for preservation. 

Format Condition and Fragility
Analog Film: 
The collection contains a small but highly at risk collection of film elements. As mentioned above, this material is the most at risk in terms of chemical and physical degradation and decomposition. In terms of priority, this material should be actioned on first. The material should be closely inspected, stabilized and stored properly, away from other stable acetate material. Once the material is stable and a more granular assessment of its condition obtained, work should be done to migrate the material either to a new digital format and/or film elements that are more stable, such as polyester. The original material should be stored in a cold or frozen environment to arrest further breakdown as a result of vinegar syndrome. 
Analog Video: 
The video material, as mentioned above, is most at risk in terms of the age of format. In terms of prioritization for preservation, the older formats should be privileged over the new ones. Following this guideline, the order of material to migrate would be: 
½” Open-Reel
1” Type C
Betacam SP
Digital Betacam

Work Assessment
The other factor determining the triage and prioritization of the material in the collection would be its relation to works in Nakajima’s career. Priority would be given to the importance of the different works from Nakajima’s artistic output, which would be determined in dialogue with the artist, curators and researchers. More obscure and older works, such as the early film works may be given a higher priority as a result of their scarcity. This assessment and prioritization should also be done in dialogue with institutions that hold or are considering Nakajima’s works. The Centre Pomidou and The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) both hold works by the artist in their collection and could be partners in working on and preserving these titles. 

5.4 migration

The video material should all be migrated to a digital video format for short-term preservation[1].  As mentioned above, all analog video is obsolete and needs to be migrated to a new carrier for future preservation of the material. This migration should be carried out by a trusted vendor who is skilled in the playback and digitization of analog video material. All Video Tape Reproducers (VTRs) should be of a professional grade and be properly maintained and regularly calibrated. The signal path for migration should utilize the best possible signal outputs in relation to the format being transferred. A skilled engineer should perform the transfers and monitor both the pre and post digitization signal during the entire playback and capture process.

[1] The reason I state “short-term preservation” here is that this migration will ensure the material is migrated and preserved for the short-term. However, there will need to be an active preservation strategy for these digital files and they will, inevitably, need to be migrated to a new format in the near future.

5.5 file formats

Destination file formats for preservation will allow for high resolution, high bitrate capture of the analog video signal and will apply little to no compression and have, ideally, an open or non-proprietary format. Currently, there are 3 main preservation formats in use by different institutions:

Material Exchange Format (MXF) wrapped JPEG2000 video stream with Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) audio stream (48Khz/24-bit)

This format is used mainly by the library of congress and is a well documented, standards based format for analog to digital video preservation. The format is non-proprietary but compatibility with more consumer-based applications, such as Premiere, is limited.

Quicktime (.mov) wrapped Uncompressed, 10-bit video stream with Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) audio stream (48Khz/24-bit)

This format is currently widely used by many institutions and small organizations for preservation. While Quicktime is a proprietary video format, it is well adopted and documented. The uncompressed video stream allows for adequate capture of the analog video signal for a faithful migration of the original signal. It is not standards based and the proprietary nature of the format means a lot of reverse engineering in terms of documentation and self-description/metadata implementation.

Matroska wrapped (.mkv) FFV1 video stream with Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) audio stream (48Khz/24-bit)

An open-source format currently being standardized by a consortium of video engineers and archivists, the Matroska wrapper allows for the capture of a variety of video, audio and data streams as well as robust metadata implementation for technical, structural and descriptive metadata capture. Similarly the FFV1 format lossless-ly compresses the video stream to save on storage sizes and allows for frame level fixity to be assigned. However, most capture software currently does not capture directly to FFV1/.mkv and adoption on common non-linear editing software is, such as Premiere, does not exist at the moment.

5.6 file storage

Once the material is migrated, the files will need to be properly stored and cared for. It is advised that this not be done solely by the artist and should, ideally, be done in partnership with an institution or organization who has the ability to store and preserve digital material. 

Chain of Custody:
The chain of custody should be established for each digital file at the point of creation by the generation of some form of fixity in the form of a checksum. There are different types of checksums one can use, each with their own pros and cons (e.g. MD5 vs SHA1, SHA512, etc.)  A variety of software applications will generate this checksum value and it should be stored either directly with the file in a “bag” structure using the Library of Congress’ BagIt Protocol or in a spreadsheet or database. 

Multiple Copies:
There should be a minimum of 3 copies of each file generated, each with fixity generated and stored for each.  This will safeguard against data loss or corruption by protecting the material with back-up copies that can replace lost or corrupted data. 

Geographically Dispersion:
The multiple digital files should be stored in different, geographically dispersed locations. This is safe-guard against material failing due to a variety of reasons in one location (magnetic interference, fire, etc) and allows of redundancy in the collection. 

5.7 intellectual control and metadata

 As mentioned above, this assessment is a good start in gaining intellectual control of the collection. This data should be further refined and edited so that it is as uniform as possible. Storing this type of information in an excel or similar spreadsheet format is fine in the short-term but it should ideally be migrated to some sort of collection management database or software. There are numerous versions available, with some made for smaller collections (such as Collective Access) and others for larger collections. A much broader assessment should be made of these different software solutions and one repository should be selected based on how this material will be stored, migrated and accessed. As this is still being formulated, this is being raised as a future concern but should be done once more immediate decisions about the collection and where it will be stored are discussed.

5.8 documentation

Documentation of the collection should be further refined with the artist as material is triaged and preservation and storage actions are implemented. While the assessment did a good job of establishing this by recording descriptive information, photographing the collection and interviewing the artist about each work – A more granular approach to each work and the material that comprise it would only benefit the preservation and larger art historical knowledge about the works creation, reception and eventual preservation.


筆者:ピーター・オレクシク (Peter Oleksik)
翻訳:Taro Masushio

1.1 はじめに
1.2 メソドロジー

第2項:コレクション分析 (省略)
2.2 全体的なコレクションの状態
2.3 形式
2.4 形式の詳細

3. 作品のリスト

4.1 環境条件
4.2 旧式化
4.3 劣化
4.4 その他の問題

5.1 環境
5.2 注意事項と取り扱い
5.3 移行
5.4 ファイル形式
5.5 ファイル保存(ストレージ)
5.6 インテレクチャル・コントロール(知的情報管理)とメタデータ
5.7 ドキュメンテーション


1.1 はじめに


1.2 メソドロジー



こちらにてユニバーサリー・ユニーク・アイデンティファイアー(Universally Unique Identifi-er/UUID)を各テープに振り当て、フォイル・ラベルを容器(ハウジング)と、テープそのものに使用。また、これらのラベルは印刷と手書きと両方にて実施した。そしてiPhoneを使用しハウジングとキャリアー両方の写真撮影を行なった。

ラベル情報と記述的なメタデータを日本語で捉え、「説明」、「タイトル」、「ハウジング注釈」、および「注釈」という項目に入力。 この部は日本語母国語者が担当した。




4.1 環境条件


4.2 旧式化


注[1] Wright, Richard. “Going, Going, Gone: prospects for analogue audiovisual content”. PrestoCentre Blog. June 15, 2013.

4.3 劣化



バインダー加水分解またはスティッキー・シェッド・シンドロームは磁気テープ素材特有のプロセスで、磁気媒体をベース(基盤)と隔てるバインダー(結合剤)層に湿気が侵入することである。これは一般的にスティッキー・シェッド・シンドロームとも言われ、磁気媒体が再生からの摩擦によってテープから分離し、信号を解読不可にしてしまう。注 バインダー加水分解は磁気テープが、クレヨンや汚れた靴下に似た匂いを発することから、診断することができる。

4.4 形式の問題


ミニDV:1995年に導入された形式のMiniDVは、最も早く一般的に利用されたデジタルビデオ形式の1つである。テープの構成は1/4インチのポリエステルベースで、大半が磁性粒子を金属蒸発(ME)という加工で付着したものである。このテープは小さくてデリケートなために、再生または乱暴な扱いによる伸張や変形などの損傷を受けやすい傾向にある。ミニDVは、典型的なアナログビデオの問題である技術的旧式化に直面している。再生機器は製造停止しており、探すのがますますと困難になっている。一般的にDVテープからの移行は、テープに記録されたデータの移行用に設計されたキャプチャーソフトウェアを使用し、Firewireを介して行われた。注[1] Firewireの接続がより新しいタイプの接続と入れ替わったことや、キャプチャー用ソフトウェアがDVのサポートを取り除いていることから、テープそのものの再生と移行が、ますます難しくなっている。注[2]

1/2 インチ・オープンリール:オープンリールは最初に発売されたポータブルビデオの形式なので、技術的旧式化の点で最もリスクの高い形式の1つとなる。注[3]再生デッキは20年以上も製造されておらず、ますますと希になっている。また、このような初期のアナログ素材を扱う技術者、特に標準のビデオに比べて異なる感度を必要とする、アーティストの作成した非標準的な素材の移行が可能な熟練した技術者が減っている背景もある。


注[1] Rice, David and Elnabli, Stefan. “Barcode Scanners, MiniDV Decks, and the Migration of Digital Information from Analog Surfaces.” AudioVisual Preservation Solutions. October 2010.

注[2] Preservation Self-Assessment Program. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. <>

注[3] Preservation Self-Assessment Program. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. <>

4.5 その他の問題点



5.1 環境


注[1] Adelstein, Peter Z. IPI Media Storage Quick Reference. 2nd Edition. Image Permanence Institute. P. 7 , <>

注[2] Adelstein, Peter Z. IPI Media Storage Quick Reference. 2nd Edition. Image Permanence Institute. P. 4

5.2 管理と取り扱い


これらの素材は埃や粉塵の多い保管環境に何年も置かれた結果、程度は異なれ、全て埃と粉塵に覆われている。従って最初に清掃し、そして可能であれば新しいコンテナーに入れ直す必要がある。 しかし、これは新しいハウジングが製造されていない形式(これはほとんどのビデオ素材に当てはまります)では不可能になる。 よって新しいハウジングを入手できない場合には、風圧、そして柔らかい毛のブラシを使用し清掃を行うべきである。非研磨性の布と少量のアルコール(イソプロピル)を使用して清掃し、テープ素材にさらにダメージを与える可能性のある埃や粉塵を除去する必要がある。

注[1] Bigourdan, Jean-Louis. “Vinegar Syndrome: An Action Plan” Image Permanence Insitute. Rochester Institute of Technology. <>

注[2] 芯(コア)の例:

注[3] ベント付きの缶の例:






  • ½インチ・オープンリール
  • Uマチック
  • 1インチVTR
  • ベータ
  • ベータカムSP
  • ミニDV
  • デジタルベータカム

トリアージと優先順位を決定する為のもう一つの要因は、作家のキャリアにおける作品の関連性となる。中島氏の芸術的成果を念頭に、様々な作品の重要性を考慮した上で、優先順位を決定するべきであり、これは作家本人、キュレーター、そして研究者による対話の中で決定されるべき項目となる。 あまり知られていない昔の作品、つまり初期の映像作品などは希少性を考慮し、高い優先順位が付くかもしれない。また、中島氏の作品を所蔵する、又は所蔵を意向している機関と協力し、評価の検討と優先順位の決定を行うべきである。

5.4 移行(マイグレーション)

ビデオ素材の作品は全て、短期保存としてデジタルビデオ形式に移行するべきである。注 上記にもあるように、アナログビデオは全て旧式化しており、将来的な保存のために新しいキャリアーに移行する必要がある。また、この移行作業は、アナログビデオ素材の再生とデジタル化に精通した、信頼のおける技術者が行うべきである。全てのビデオテープ・レプロデューサー(VTR)はプロフェッショナル・グレードのものを使用し、メンテナンスを心がけ随時調整を行う必要がある。移行に際する信号経路は、移行対象の形式にとって最良の信号出力を利用するべきである。そして熟練した技術者が作業を行い、再生およびキャプチャー処理作業中全域にて、デジタル化前後の信号を両方共に監視する必要がある。

5.5 ファイル形式


Material Exchange Format (MXF) wrapped JPEG2000 video stream with Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) audio stream (48Khz/24-bit)


Quicktime (.mov) wrapped Uncompressed, 10-bit video stream with Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) audio stream (48Khz/24-bit)

この形式は現在保存の目的で、多くの機関や小規模団体により広く使用されている。 Quicktimeはプロプライエタリ(私用)ビデオ形式となるが、多くの場面で採用されており、使用の記録も豊富にある。Quicktimeの非圧縮ビデオストリームは、元の信号を忠実に移行するので、オリジナルのアナログビデオ信号の適切なキャプチャーが可能である。 Quicktimeはスタンダード・ベースではなく、プロプライエタリ形式の性質として、記録(ドキュメンテーション)や、自己による記述やメタ・データの入力に関して多くのリバース・エンジニアリング(逆行分析・工作)が必要となる。

Matroska wrapped (.mkv) FFV1 video stream with Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) audio stream (48Khz/24-bit)


5.6 ファイル・ストレージ

これらの素材が移行された後には、ファイルを適切に保存しメンテナンスを行う必要がある。 これは作家本人のみにより処理されるべきではないと考えられ、理想的にはデジタル素材の保管と保存に関する技術・能力を持つ機関や組織と共に協力し、実行することが勧めらる。

チェックサムの形で、何らかの形の固定数値を作成し、生産物流管理をファイル作成時点で各デジタルファイルに確立するべきである。現在、使用可能な様々な種類のチェックサムが存在し、それぞれに利点と不利益がある(例:MD5 vs SHA1、 SHA512など)。様々なソフトウェアがこのチェックサム値を生成することになり、これらのチェックサム値は、アメリカ議会図書館が使用している「BagIt Protocol」方式による「バッグ」構造にて、ファイルに直接保管するか、またはスプレッドシートかデータベースに保管するべきである。 


これら複数のデジタルファイルは、地理的に分散した、異なる場所に保管するべきである。 これは1つの場所で起こりうるさまざまな原因(磁気干渉、火災など)から、コレクションの重複を設け、大きな損失が発生しないように保障する手段となる。

5.7 インテレクチャル・コントロール(知的情報管理)とメタデータ

上記のように、今回の調査は当コレクションのインテレクチャル・コントロール(知的情報管理)を得る上で、意義のある第一歩となった。そして、これらのデータには、さらに編集と調整を繰り返し、できる限りの統一性を作るべきである。また、これらの情報をExcelや類似したスプレッドシート形式にて短期間保存することは可能となるが、理想的な形は、コレクション管理用のデータベースやソフトウェアに移行することとなる。このようなデータベースやソフトウェアは多数存在し、小さなコレクション(Collective Accessなど)用から、より大きなコレクション用に製作されたものまである。使用するデータベース・ソフトウェアに関しては、さらに広域な調査を行う必要があり、これらの素材が如何にして保存、移行、そしてアクセスされるのか、という諸々の点を考慮し、1つのものを選定することになる。これらの情報はまだまだ体系化の途中段階にあるため、保存用データベース・ソフトウェアの選定は将来の懸案事項としてのみ提起するものの、このコレクションに関する、差し迫った決断と保存場所に関する検討が行われ次第、実行に移るべきである。

5.8 ドキュメンテーション(記録)